Otis wrote about how each colonist, black or white, should legally receive essential civil rights. Although Wheatley did not live as a typical slave, e. She also referenced Latin playwright and former slave Terence, with whom she shared common oppressive challenges. Her use of the subversive pastoral technique allowed her to quietly supply an argument against the status quo without drawing further attention to herself. She claimed that God created both humans and virtue; therefore all individuals are inherently equal.
Wheatley intertwined Christian concepts with political theory, which allowed her to effectively add depth to her argument posed against the institution that stole the early part of her life. Although Wheatley died as a free woman in , she remained enslaved to racial oppression. She also included many mythical allusions throughout her works. With her knowledge of the Latin language, she alluded to mythology in twenty-six out of thirty-nine of her works in Poems. It is significant that Colombia wears this crown because the combination of laurel and olive denotes freedom as a result of victory.
The inclusion of olive and laurel gains greater significance in the discussion of Athena in that olives symbolize peace. Athena as the goddess of war would reach peace through military prowess. Wheatley used Aeolus, god of wind, as a personification of the rough waters between Britain and America. The storms of Aeolus refer to the recurring hardships between America and Britain in the dispute over representation and independence and the ocean separating them that caused so much separation.
Her poem not only alluded to the freedom America was fighting for from Britain, but also to the consciousness of those in bondage to their inherent freedoms as humans. Freedom endures as a common theme in both poems, which also draw from mythical figures and allude to classical symbols such as the olive and laurel crown. Living in revolutionary America as an African poet, Phillis Wheatley faced a multitude of challenges.
The world, it may have seemed, stood against her. Through her education she learned classical form and content from Horace and Virgil, and became well versed in Greek and Roman mythology. Thomas Jefferson notably denied the authenticity of her work out of fear of her knowledge about subjects much of society had not had the opportunity to learn. The content and form of her literary works may be contributed to her education in the classics. The symbol of laurel and olive in her freedom crown denotes freedom as a result from victory, ensuring a victory for America in the battle against Britain.
Phillis Wheatley effectively voiced her thoughts on the institution of slavery through her poetry. Despite the obstacles that lay in her path, she eventually received proper recognition of her works. Allusions to classical Greek and Roman literature saturated her poetry throughout her career, which ended when she died in Her enslavement fueled her passion for freedom. Phillis Wheatley incorporated classical form and content to express her opinion on freedom to effectively speak out on slavery not with her voice, but with her pen.
Several of these names include that of Governor Thomas Hutchinson, Hon. John Wheatley. The Countess of Huntingdon also shared a friendship with merchant and philanthropist John Thornton who invested his life into mission work.
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John and Susanna Wheatley disbursed the funds given by the Countess and Thornton, which is how the link between London and Boston originated for the Wheatley family. Samson Occom, a figure discussed under the Literary Analysis section, raised funds for the Indian school and studied as a pupil for Wheelock, which created yet another political friendship of Phillis, Thornton, and the Countess. Given the positive relationship and similar ideals, John Wheatley encouraged Phillis and Nathaniel to travel to London and meet with the Countess to inquire support as a patroness.
Among the blacks is misery enough, God knows, but not poetry. Love is the peculiar oestrum of the poet. Their love is ardent, but it kindles the senses only, not the imagination.
Religion, indeed, has produced a Phillis Wheatley; but it could not produce a poet. March 11, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. Bennett, Paula. Brown, Delindus and Wanda Anderson. Gates, Henry Louis.
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Baudelaire illustrates these principles by discussing in detail the interests and techniques of "CG," his designation for the artist who wished to remain anonymous, from his brush stroke to his Crimean War drawings for the Illustrated London News. Central to Baudelaire's estimation of Guys is that Guys is not an artist but is, rather, a man of the world. For Baudelaire, a broad interest in the world as opposed to the restricted perspective that he associates with most "artistes" is crucial to interesting art. Along with this line of thought Baudelaire elaborates his notion of the dandy, who is not only the elegant dresser of usual associations but also a man of the world who lives according to the highest aesthetic principles.
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Baudelaire also develops his ideas about "la foule," the crowd, which is the solitary artist's domain "as water is for the fish. In that last section, "Eloge du Maquillage" In Praise of Makeup , Baudelaire makes explicit two more concepts that are important to his ethos. Second, as a corollary to the importance he attaches to fashion, makeup, and the codes of the dandy, Baudelaire touches on his unromantic distaste for the natural.
Everything beautiful is beautiful by calculation, he opines. Art is necessary to correct the natural state of man, which on the physical level is unattractive and on the spiritual level is a state of original sin. By the early s Baudelaire had found a model for his ideals in the person of Guys, and he gave full expression to his artistic aesthetic in "Le Peintre de la vie moderne. In he published twenty prose poems in La Presse.
This landmark year marks a shift in his creative endeavors from poetry in verse to poetry in prose: thereafter most of his creative publications are prose poems. Baudelaire managed to write only fifty of the one hundred prose poems he had projected. Le Spleen de Paris is, as Baudelaire would say, a "singular" assemblage of works that represents an extremely ambitious literary project.
In his correspondence he refers to the prose poems as a "pendant" a completion of to Les Fleurs du mal. Houssaye was the editor of L'Artiste and La Presse , which published some of the prose poems individually. Bertrand did not label his short pieces "prose poems," though: Baudelaire is the first poet to make a radical break with the form of verse by identifying nonmetrical compositions as poetry. Having mastered the forms of traditional verse, Baudelaire wanted to do nothing less than create a new language.
Unlike Bertrand's "picturesque" topics, Baudelaire associates his new language with the modern topic of the city. In contrast with the "architecture" of Les Fleurs du mal , these interconnections are presented without order. Le Spleen de Paris is modern in that it represents a break with traditional form, is about urban life, and is consciously without order.
It is worth noting that in his preface Baudelaire refers to the form of the work as "prose lyrique. Did Baudelaire succeed in his ambition to forge a new poetic language?
Most critics have tended to discuss the themes of the poems rather than their form, however, accepting poetry in Baudelaire's wake as an attitude rather than a set of rules. This collection, which has been growing in popularity among critics, still contains much to be explored. Baudelaire's poems in prose are short anecdotes, bitter satires, and reveries about unusual topics, including dogs, mud, aged tumblers, windows, widows, and poor people standing outside fancy eating establishments.
Several critics, notably Pierre Emmanuel, have noted that there is more compassion in these works than in Baudelaire's poetry in verse. This compassion can take strange forms—the speaker of "Les Yeux des pauvres" The Eyes of the Poor is so moved by a family of poor people that he hates the companion he had loved for her lack of sympathy.
In fact, the speaker in "Mademoiselle Bistouri" concludes by praying to God—as opposed to the devil—to have pity on crazy people.
Furthermore, while many of the prose poems are about ugliness, they often accept and possibly even transcend ugliness. As with Les Fleurs du mal , it would be a mistake to pigeonhole the poems in this collection, which unlike his first has no headings. As critics have noticed from the very beginning, however, the prose poems address banalities and travails of life quite differently from Les Fleurs du mal. In fact, Henri Peyre, an eminent scholar of French poetry, argues in Connaissance de Baudelaire that Le Spleen de Paris has had a greater influence on poetry than Les Fleurs du mal.
Le Spleen de Paris undoubtedly has had a significant influence on modern poetry. During the period in which he was seriously exploring prose poetry, Baudelaire experienced a series of financial disasters. He had sold his writings to Poulet-Malassis, who had gone bankrupt in La Presse stopped publishing his poetry in prose. Baudelaire arrived in Brussels on 24 April and checked into the Hotel du Grand Miroir, where he stayed, enduring a miserable sojourn, until his stroke in He did not even bother to deliver the entire talk.
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In addition to the disappointment of the lecture series, Baudelaire did not make contact with Lacroix, who never accepted his invitations. Despite his unhappy situation, Baudelaire stayed on in Belgium, perhaps because he was hoping for a satirical book to come out of the stay, perhaps because he did not want to return to France without something to show for the trip, or perhaps because he could not pay his hotel bill. There was no effective cure for syphilis in his day, and so although he thought he was cured of it in the early s, his disease erupted in , and again in the spring of In letters from January he describes recurrent and distressing symptoms.
The doctors never mentioned syphilis in connection with his final illness, but it seems very likely that the cerebral hemorrhage of 15 March was caused by the debilitating effects of the disease. The Rops took Baudelaire back to Brussels, and by 31 March paralysis had set in. By 4 April, Baudelaire was incapable of speaking coherently. Baudelaire was eventually moved into a hydrotherapeutic establishment, and it was there that he died on 31 August This aphasic state was special torture for him because he seemed to understand what was going on around him but was unable to express himself.
He had wanted to find a publisher for them before his stroke, and his friends organized themselves to bring about what had become a last wish. Ever the perfectionist, Baudelaire wanted to oversee the production of the manuscript. He knew, however, that he was in no condition to do so.
Though Baudelaire was accepted as a poet during his lifetime, his status with nineteenth-century critics was tenuous.