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Modernes, schnellwachsendes Casino. Auszahlung nur innerhalb eines Arbeitstages. Sehr bequeme Auszahlung mit wenigen Anforderungen. AGBs Anwenden? It was basically an application of combinatorics on a given set of concepts. During the Renaissance , Lullian and Kabbalistic ideas were carried ad absurdum in a magical context, resulting in cryptographic applications.
The Voynich manuscript may be an example of this. Renaissance interest in Ancient Egypt , notably the discovery of the Hieroglyphica of Horapollo , and first encounters with the Chinese script directed efforts towards a perfect language of written characters. Johannes Trithemius , in his works Steganographia and Polygraphia , attempted to show how all languages can be reduced to one.
In the 17th century, interest in magical languages was continued by the Rosicrucians and Alchemists like John Dee. Jakob Boehme in spoke of a "natural language" Natursprache of the senses.
Historical Excursion Language , Being , History in Jacob Boehme ’ s Theosophy
Musical languages from the Renaissance were tied up with mysticism , magic and alchemy, sometimes also referred to as the language of the birds. The Solresol project of re-invented the concept in a more pragmatic context.
- Constructed language.
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The 17th century also saw the rise of projects for "philosophical" or "a priori" languages. Gottfried Leibniz with lingua generalis in pursued a similar end, aiming at a lexicon of characters upon which the user might perform calculations that would yield true propositions automatically, as a side-effect developing binary calculus. Leibniz and the encyclopedists realized that it is impossible to organize human knowledge unequivocally in a tree diagram, and consequently to construct an a priori language based on such a classification of concepts. Individual authors, typically unaware of the history of the idea, continued to propose taxonomic philosophical languages until the early 20th century e.
Ro , but most recent engineered languages have had more modest goals; some are limited to a specific field, like mathematical formalism or calculus e. Lincos and programming languages , others are designed for eliminating syntactical ambiguity e. Joachim Faiguet in the article on Langue already wrote a short proposition of a "laconic" or regularized grammar of French.
During the 19th century, a bewildering variety of such International Auxiliary Languages IALs were proposed, so that Louis Couturat and Leopold Leau in Historire de la langue universelle could review 38 projects. However, this language by its very success lost its unity, and within a few years, fell into obscurity, making way for Esperanto , proposed in by Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof , the most successful IAL to date.
Loglan and its descendants constitute a pragmatic return to the aims of the a priori languages, tempered by the requirement of usability of an auxiliary language. Artistic languages, constructed for literary enjoyment or aesthetic reasons without any claim of usefulness, begin to appear in Early Modern literature in Pantagruel , and in Utopian contexts , but they only seem to gain notability as serious projects from the 20th century. A Princess of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs was possibly the first fiction of the 20th century to feature a constructed language.
Tolkien was the first to develop a family of related fictional languages and was the first academic to publicly discuss artistic languages, admitting to A Secret Vice of his in at an Esperanto congress. George Orwell 's Newspeak should be considered a parody of an IAL rather than an artistic language proper. Despite the vast currency that Schiller's ideas have had in America, according to the recent proofs offered by American scholars, they have left no trace in Whitman's works.
Schiller's doctrine and practice of aesthetics and form of poetry were incompatible with Whitman's views. A certain similarity between the young Schiller's Shaftesburyean eudae- monism and demand of general brotherhood and Whitman's ideas of comradeship and universal humanity are merely inci- dental. This sort of personality we see in. From his scant allusions, it is impossible to say in how high or mean estimation Whitman held Heine. One citation sounds rather depreciatory : " For American literature we want mighty authors, not even Carlyle- and Heine-like, born and brought up in and more or less essentially partaking and giving out the vast abnormal ward or hysterical sick chamber which in many respects Europe, with all its glories, would seem to be.
Heine, more invigorating to accomplish something bad than something empty.
Martin Maack, Dichter-Lexicon, Liibeck, , p. In his amateur attempt at linguistic research : Slang in A? Schliemann interesting but fishy about his excava- tions there in the far-off Homeric area, I notice cities, ruins, etc. Whitman was little occupied with speculations on Eupo- pean or German plastic art.
For this, the very opportunities of visiting satisfactory galleries were wanting. At the great Ex- position of at New York, he had access to "a very large and copious exhibition gallery of paintings, hundreds of pictures from Europe, many masterpieces — all an exhaustless study. He exclaims in rapture : " Will America ever have such an artist out of her own gesta- tion, body, soul? If this is really a national trait, Whitman is a true native of America.
Translation, Introduction, Commentary.
For his admiration for Thorwaldsen's ''Apostles" expresses itself in the only term : " Colossal in size. In " Proud Music of the Storm " the poet intonates a passionate psean on music, comparable only with Schiller's hymn: "Die Macht des Gesanges. The air was borne by a rich contralto. Very likely. But I was fed and bred under the Italian dispensation, and ab- sorbed it, and doubtless show it. What his abstractions really are may be best termed with his own words : " Crude gossip of philoso- phy.
Perhaps Symonds hits it nearest by saying : " It is useless to extract a coherent scheme of thought from his voluminous writings. Who would sign himself a candidate for my affections? The way is suspicious, the result uncertain, perhaps de- structive, You would have to give up all else. I alone would expect to be your sole and exclusive standard. Your novitiate would even then be long and exhausting, The whole past theory of your life and all conformity to the lives around you would have to be abandoned.
But Whitman, who has a somewhat vulgar inclination for technical talk and the jargon of philosophy, is not content with a few pregnant hints ; he must put the dots upon his i's ; he must corroborate the songs of Apollo by some of the darkest talk of human meta- physics. I — May Apr. Appendix — Gesner's Death of Abel. Literary Notice.
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